The Way To Yahuweh I am Yahuweh – That is My Name
Isaiah 42:8

Wadi Murabba’at Isaiah and The Way to Yahuweh Transcription Process

Posts Tagged ‘qumran’

Wadi Murabba’at Isaiah and The Way to Yahuweh Transcription Process

March 13th, 2018

Whilst I can’t exactly fathom how I missed such a Dead Sea Scrolls Manuscript (I mean, it’s not like I haven’t done transcriptions for the other Wadi Murabba’at scrolls… oh wait, yes I did!), it does however give a good opportunity to discuss the Dead Sea Scrolls and the transcription process for TWTY, using this very manuscript as an example.

Prior to 2011, the only way to see manuscripts of the Dead Sea Scrolls (which include those from Wadi Murabba’at, Wadi Sdeir, Nahal Hever etc.) would either a) be a scholar and have access to them for a scholarly article/Masters/Ph.D.; b) have a copy of one of the numerous volumes from the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert series (DJD), which range from the ‘oh that’s not that expensive (£96)’, to the ‘OH MY WORD I’LL NEED TO REMORTGAGE MY BLASTED HOUSE! (£282.50)’ – you’re looking at £6,000+ for the entire collection (40 Volumes at the moment); or c) find a book about a Dead Sea Scrolls manuscript produced by a scholar, that also includes the image(s) (or facsimile as a reproduction of a manuscript is more commonly known).

Obviously, getting all those volumes and producing a free to use transcription of the facsimiles would not have been an easy job, but there was some earlier assistance, and that was the production of the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible (DSSB), published in 1999. This at least gave the mere ‘public’ the opportunity to see a translation of the Scriptural Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts, which also provided lots of supplementary information, such as a list of the names or designations given to Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts (such as 4QGenn, 3QLam etc.), and a glimpse into the Hebrew letters or words extant in the manuscripts. This gave people the ability to use the list of manuscripts, and shown extant or non-extant letters, to create preliminary transcriptions of the manuscripts in question, as the Masoretic Tanakh was already digitised by this time. This unfortunately didn’t give anyone the capacity to produce a proper transcription of the manuscripts, as how many letters per line etc., etc., was not given in the DSSB.

It was, however, a fantastic start.

Nevertheless, role on 2011, and in conjunction with Google, the Israel Museum was able to provide a high-resolution ultra-version of several of the larger Dead Sea Scrolls, one of which was the Great Isaiah Scroll. Being able to see quite probably the most famous Dead Sea Scroll in all of its glory was a fantastic achievement for both.

It wouldn’t stop there, however. Again in conjunction with Google, the Israel Antiquities Authority released The Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library (LLDSSDL) online. This gave photographs (both original and newer ones, and they have continued to provide more recent ones too), of nearly all the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered. To call this a ‘treasure trove’ would be a huge understatement.

Clearly the Internet has done a lot of good to assist with Dead Sea Scrolls research (especially the behemoth that is Google), and before 2011 you could quite easily find images of several of the Dead Sea Scrolls dotted around online. But not nearly as much as the collection now on the LLDSSDL.

In the recent release of the Dead Sea Scrolls Image Sources page on TWTY, I spent quite a few days going through all the images again, and came across several things I had missed, one of which was an entire manuscript designated MurIsa (short for Wadi Murabba’at Isaiah)! How it was missed I cannot explain. Notwithstanding, checking through my copy of the DSSB and some much earlier notes on the Dead Sea Scrolls, I did find a few peculiar things that might solve the mystery.

In its original discussion of the Isaiah manuscripts among the Dead Sea Scrolls, the DSSB states this (image taken from the book itself), which I have underlined the reference to Wadi Murabba’at Isaiah:

So the DSSB mentions it in the initial discussion. But what about when it comes to the actual content of the manuscript?

At the start of each chapter from a Scriptural Book, the DSSB gives a list of the manuscripts that contain words from the chapter, and how many verses it has extant.

One should expect therefore to find Wadi Murabba’at Isaiah listed somewhere at the start of one of the chapters of Isaiah. I say one should expect, but in this case, we don’t!

Wadi Murabba’at contains text from Isaiah 1:4-14. Here’s what the DSSB has for this section:

As can be seen, this is somewhat bizarre. MurIsa isn’t given in the list of manuscripts containing text from Isaiah Chapter 1, yet is given in the notes on variant readings from the main one used in the DSSB! This may explain why I found an old note in one of my notebooks that just says “MurIsa?” Needless to say that even now, information on MurIsa is somewhat scarce (most places I’ve found just give the name, but no indication of verses or content), so whilst not a great excuse, it goes someway to explaining how MurIsa was missed for so long a time.

Let’s have a look at the manuscript in question, and describe the transcription process used for TWTY.

Using the infrared image on the LLDSSDL, we can see that the manuscript has quite a few letters and words that are very easy to read. But how can we determine that this manuscript contains text from Isaiah, and not some other place in the Tanakh that has similar words? Perhaps it isn’t even a Scriptural book at all?!

The first full word that can be seen is on line 2 (I’ll explain why I don’t refer to it as line 1 later on), which reads as אחור. A search in the Tanakh shows that there are only 24 places that have the word אחור. This therefore narrows our choices for this manuscript to Gen 49:17; 1 Sam 1:22; Isa 1:4, 28:13, 42:17, 44:25, 50:5, 59:14; Jer 15:6, 38:22, 46:5; Psalms 9:4, 35:4, 40:15, 44:11, 19, 56:10; 70:3, 78:66, 129:5, 139:5; Lam 1:8, 13, 2:3. The final choice is that this isn’t a manuscript containing text from any Canonised Scriptural book, but is a different non-canonised book or previously unknown composition instead.

Our next full word is on the next line, and is כל. This is a very common word in the Tanakh, so doing a search on this would be somewhat fruitless. What we can glean from this though is that the manuscript most likely contains the defective (short) rather than the plene (full) spellings of words.

Right next to כל is ראש meaning head. Now on its own, ראש is seen 99 times in the Tanakh, reducing our choices quite a lot, but how many times is it preceded by the common noun כל? The answer is four times: Isa 1:5; Jer 48:37; Ezek 29:18; and Amos 8:10. This reduces our pool significantly, for if we compare to our previous extant word, there is only one viable conclusion: we’re likely looking at a manuscript of the book of Isaiah.

Could it be another composition? Possibly, but directly following כל ראש is one extant letter, and part of another. The extant letter is ל, and in the text of Isaiah, what directly follows כל ראש is לחלי, granting a big clue that we’re looking at a direct copy of the text of Isaiah. The rest of the extant words and letters also fit in exactly with how the text of Isaiah has descended through the centuries.

From here we can start to build the transcription.

Based on the easiest to see letters, the following can be given as to what the text of the manuscript looked like:

Clearly this isn’t a ‘transcription’ of the manuscript just yet; there’s no indication of missing letters etc., but this is all added later on. Regardless, as we can fit the text of Isaiah into what is seen on the manuscript, we can start to deduce several things about it:

1) From the extant text, there are no variants from what came to be the standard Masoretic Hebrew Text of Isaiah. Therefore it is more than likely there’s no variants in the non-extant portions either.
2) The line length ranges from around 22 letters to 30 letters, with an average amount of 6 words per line.
3) Like other Hebrew manuscripts, words are not split up from line to line. This is in contrast to Greek and Latin works, which happily split words up from one line to the next.

All the above helps to determine the non-extant text. We can then produce the following:

Now I’ve left some lines (3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9) without indication of where the final extant letters appear. This is due to the fact that there’s at least a bit of several letters that are visible, but not in their entirety.

Looking at line 3 in the image, we can clearly see the letters כל ראש ל, but can also see the right-hand side of another letter:

As we learned before, the rest of the word following ל is most likely חלי, with the right hand side of the letter extant above being from ח. If we compare this to how the fully extant ח are within the manuscript (line 2, line 15), then this becomes even clearer.

Applying this to the rest of the just-about-extant letters seen, we can produce the transcription of lines 2-10 thusly:

On lines 4 and 5, there’s a bit of scarring on the manuscript that has rubbed away two full letters, and quite a good chunk of a few more, but these at least have left some evidence. On lines 7 and 8, we can just about see the bottom or tops of the last couple of letters; in this case there is enough left of them to give more than just a ‘?’ in their place.

The really tricky part comes in determining exactly which letters we can see in those lines that have barely a dot left of a letter.

The reason I’ve not designated the line beginning with אחור as line 1 is due to the fact that there’s a bottom right corner dot of one letter just above the initial א of line 2:

But what letter is this? Is it even possible to determine what letter it can be from just a small dot as this? Well, yes is the answer; although there is always a very certain degree of doubt as to the identification. This however is where knowing the line-length comes in handy.

We know from the earlier discussion that the line length is around 22-30 letters, averaging at around 6 full words (though there is a minimum of 5, max of 9 based on the word-length). Also, the extant portion, as mentioned, demonstrates that this manuscript contains no variants. Therefore we can deduce that this dot is from a letter, 22-30 letters preceding אחור in Isaiah 1:4, at an average of around 6 full words.

The 6 full words prior to אחור in Isaiah 1:4 are the following:
יהוה נאצו את קדוש ישראל נזרו

Not only is this 6 full words, but also 23 letters which is within our range of 22-30. But is this right? Can that dot be the bottom of the letter י at the start of יהוה? Checking for the fully extant י’s in our manuscript (see lines 18 & 19), this dot is too low and too far to the right-hand side for it to be the bottom of a י. We’re looking really for a letter that has a sort of hook to the bottom right.

If we take our maximum amount of letters (30), and apply it to the words before אחור, we end up with עזבו את יהוה נאצו את קדוש ישראל נזרו. Here we have 29 letters, 8 words, right within our range once more. Unfortunately we have no extant ע’s in our manuscript to see how the scribe would’ve written the letter. Therefore is this an ע? Here we need to look at similarly dated, and similarly styled manuscripts to see how they wrote the letter ע to give a guestimate on how the letter may’ve looked in MurIsa.

MurIsa has the closest similarity with MurDeut, both of which are dated to have been produced 20-84 CE in a post-Herodion style of writing. Thankfully, MurDeut has some extant ע’s that can be looked at.

Taken from Fragment 1 Column 1:

Here we can see the style of ע that was prevalent in post-Herodian style handwriting: a long, sloping right line, with an almost vertical and smaller left line going up from the middle of the right line. This therefore removes the letter ע and the word עזבו as being what we can see extant in the first line of MurIsa; the letter ע wouldn’t have left a bottom-right mark.

What would be our next choice? As noted above, we could easily remove the word עזבו from our sentence, giving us את יהוה נאצו את קדוש ישראל נזרו. Not only is this still within our range (25 letters, 7 words), but the letter א, as seen numerous times in MurIsa, always leaves a bottom-right hook.

Therefore the dot visible in line 1 is from the bottom-right corner of the left downward stroke of the letter א.

We can then give the following:

This fits what is detectable in MurIsa, but also all the available ranges and evidence from other manuscripts that are at our disposal.

One of the last things to decide upon is what letter we can just see the top-right hook of in line 11:

Again, if we take the average line length, we can leave lines 11-13 for the time being and look at what can be decided for from line 14 onwards:

We begin in line 14 with some text from near the start of v11. This indicates that the start of v11 must come in one of the lines above, more than likely line 13 directly above. Therefore as נצורה at the start of line 10 is the last word in v8, then what we must have in lines 10-13 is text from Isaiah 1:9-10.

Taking our average line lengths, and omitting the amount of letters that can be surmised from the transcription, line 10 has 17-25 letters left to fit in, and line 13 has 15-23 left to fit in. Adding in the total possible letters for lines 11 and 12 into the equation, this leaves us with around 76-108 letters from verses 9-10 to place within the brackets.

Accepting the evidence from the extant letters, and the conclusion that this manuscript has no variants from the standard text of Isaiah, the total number of letters in Isaiah 1:9-10 is 89, meaning we’re looking at line lengths of around 22-26 letters for lines 10-13.

One has to presume therefore that the letter we see at the start of line 11 is from somewhere in v9. As the manuscript shows no evidence of gaps between verses, v9 will have started straight after the final word of v8 in line 10. We are also looking at a letter that has a sort-of right-slopping top-right hook.

Accepting the text of v9 as follows:

לולי יהוה צבאות הותיר לנו שריד כמעט כסדם היינו לעמרה דמינו

Then comparing these letters to the extant ones we see in MurIsa, there are very few letter candidates that could produce something as seen in line 11, with the only one I would argue being the letter ש. There’s more than a few extant ש’s in MurIsa, which look like this:

As is distinguishable, though never written exactly alike, the start of the right-side hook is nigh-on perfect for what we can see at the start of line 11. Whilst not 100%, the likelihood that it’s another letter is quite low, as no other letter gives such a right-curving mark.

The transcription of MurIsa is now able to be completed, and is as below:

The above detailed process actually doesn’t take as long as I’ve taken to explain it; most of the decisions are made very quickly once a base-text has been established for the manuscript in question. If this was an unknown composition, then what I’ve explained above would be extremely complicated, and it’s very difficult to conclude what the missing letters are, or what letter one can just about see scrapes and dots from. Thankfully we do actually have a base text to work from, making transcriptions of the Scriptural manuscripts a lot easier.

Thus wraps up the transcription process used for the manuscripts seen on TWTY, and the discussion of MurIsa. Hope it’s been informative, and not quite as mundane or boring as such explanations can be 🙂

Update! New Dead Sea Scrolls Page

March 5th, 2018

You might be wondering, if you’ve visited this site before, why on earth I’m announcing a ‘new’ Dead Sea Scrolls page, when I’ve already got several.

This one is a little different. It’s not really ‘more’ information on the Dead Sea Scrolls etc., but rather a link to all the images that are transcribed on TWTY!

So not only can you see the transcriptions, but have an easy to reference page for the actual images of the DSS manuscripts themselves!

For most manuscripts, the first few image links are of the full ‘plates’ (these have more than one fragment on them, usually in order as to how they match up with the text they reproduce); the rest are images of individual fragments, mostly in fragment-number order. Also indicated is the official publication that the images were initially printed.

Having gone through the images again, I ended up discovering a Dead Sea Scrolls manuscript that I’d missed (Whoops! There are a few of them…), but also identified an unpublished fragment of 4Q51 Samuela (4QSama) which I have already incorporated into the transcription of said manuscript.

To make up for the fact that I had no updates in February, look out for some up and coming blog posts on the above two mentioned items. Should make for some good, light reading 🙂

The above two mentioned Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts have already been put on TWTY – brownie points to those who find the new Dead Sea Scrolls manuscript, and even more to the one who can identify the place in 4QSama where the new fragment has given us more of the text!

Update! Complete TC Edition & More

December 22nd, 2016

I may be cutting it quite close, but as mentioned back in April, I have managed to complete the DSS TC Edition! All Scriptural Books found among the Dead Sea Scrolls will now have their TC Editions online, both as separate books, and also in one giant TC Edition PDF File. Included in this Full publication are a small Preface, along with an Appendix regarding the text of Isaiah 61:1-2.

See the Downloads Page for the files to download/view 🙂

As with all TC Edition’s that have been completed, I end up updating most of the relevant Dead Sea Scrolls Transcriptions along with them. I did keep a ‘sort-of’ list, so may be worth re-downloading any document you’ve already had.

The list that I kept was as such:

4QpaleoDeutr; 1QDeuta; 4QDeutk2; 4QLevb; 4QLevd; 11QLevb; MasLevb; 1QIsaa; 1QIsab; 4QIsaa; 4QIsab; 4QIsac; 4QIsad; 4QIsae; 4QIsaf; 4QIsag; 4QIsah; 4QIsak; 4QIsal; 2QJer; Leviticus Parallel; Deuteronomy Parallel; Isaiah Parallel.

There is now very little I can do to assist in everyone’s DSS studies. Bar the occasional manuscript that appears once every decade or so, all of them are on TWTY for people to use for their studies!

I will be releasing them in other formats in the future (Bibleworks, E-Sword, even possible The Word), but these will be sporadic and won’t be coming forth any time soon.

I’ll also be taking a little break for at least up until the end of January. Then I will commence completing all the other projects I’ve already started (namely the Ancient Greek Papyri transcriptions & translations, as well as versions 2 and 3 of the Renewed Covenant Translation).

I have also removed a section from TWTY – and that is the Greek-English Interlinears section. I have come to understand that Interlinears don’t help – they rather hinder study, and make people think that they are translating when using an Interlinear to “assist”. They’re not; they’re mainly producing drivel. As such, I will not be producing any interlinear – ever. Plain parallel versions are fine though, so will be keeping those projects alive.

Anyway, apologies for waffling on. I shall stop 🙂

Hope everyone has an enjoyable new year, and I shall be posting again in 2017!

Update! Loadsa stuff!

April 18th, 2016

Firstly – Happy New Year!

It’s been over a year since I last posted about things new on TWTY.

Unfortunately lots of IRL stuff got in the way of things this past year, and still ongoing (found out I had cataracts on my eyes last year: my right eye has been operated on; my left will be done at the end of April. Needless to say, not being able to see properly makes what I’ve been doing the past decade quite difficult!), but I hope this comes to its conclusion soon. 🙂

Nevertheless, I have been using as much of my spare time as possible to continue doing things, and so here we are!

Essentially, I have done so many corrections to existing things on TWTY, that unless you’ve downloaded everything in the past 4 hours, then everything you currently have is out of date – this applies to the translations, ancient manuscripts, and especially any and all Dead Sea Scrolls! I lost track of which ones got updates, so I can’t provide a list, so if there’s any you’ve been looking at recently, I’d start with re-downloading that and taking a look through. May find a few things I have corrected since. 🙂

That’s the already existing files out of the way – now for what’s going on “new stuff” wise!

There are three new DSS Manuscripts online now – X Joshua, X Judges, and F.Amos 1, all available at the usual place on the Downloads Page.

There’s also been a new section added on the downloads page – a TC Edition, with TC standing for Textual-Critical. These are the combined manuscripts of the Dead Sea Scrolls in order to form a full “Qumran Bible” of sorts, with any differences between the manuscripts noted in footnotes, with the reading of the Masoretic Hebrew, Greek Septuagint, and for the Torah, the Samaritan Pentateuch in the same variant.

Obviously I haven’t repeated the differences between the DSS and these other manuscripts in these TC Editions, as I’ve already done that in the main Dead Sea Scrolls transcriptions. I’ve been updating this new section over the past year, and have only got four books left to do (Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Psalms, and Isaiah). I hope to have these done by the end of the year, but as always, this is liable to change. 🙂

Next up is a new TWTY E-sword module, containing the Version 1 Translation of the RC/NT found here on TWTY. Well I say that, I still have yet to finish adding Luke, John, and Acts to the Module, but all the rest of the books are contained within.

If you don’t know what E-Sword is, pop on over to the E-Sword website and take a look. Along with TWTY module is the Module installer programme, to allow you to easily install TWTY E-sword module into E-Sword without much bother.

As I was going through the translations whilst creating this module, it allowed me to do some updates to the translations, which have all been added to the E-Sword module, the Website, and the PDF’s of the translations.

Download all the Version 1 PDF’s and the E-Sword module here.

Yet another update comes to you via a visitor to TWTY, who is very kindly converting the Dead Sea Scrolls files into BibleWorks database files. With their permission I am putting them up on TWTY for others to download and use with their version of BibleWorks. Currently have the Genesis Manuscripts and the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa) complete. I will post updates periodically when new files are added. Get the files (including instructions on how to import them to your BibleWorks) here.

Finally, we have a small addition to TWTY, and that is an XML version of the Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts. XML has so many amazing uses I wouldn’t be able to list them all, but if you know what XML is, then you’ll enjoy this update. Only the one ready at the moment, but as always, I shall add others when I’ve done them. 🙂 4Q82g Habakkuk XML.

Phew! That’s it – all things updated/new have been submitted for your pleasure!

As with everything, feel at liberty to use any and all things on TWTY freely and without constraints, and ANY issues you find, don’t hesitate to contact me using either the Contact page, or by posting on the forums 🙂

Edit:
The E-Sword and BibleWorks Modules should be able to be downloaded now. Apologies for the error with that!

Dead Sea Scrolls – Parallel Manuscripts

December 1st, 2014

In order to aid the reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls and their multiple manuscripts, Parallel versions of the Scriptural books that have more than one manuscript witness to their text have just been uploaded to TWTY. Those that only have one manuscript witness (2 Kings, 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah; Esther has none whatsoever) have not had parallel versions done – mainly because there’s no point!

These Parallel Versions also aid in being able to do the Textual Critical Editions that are also going to be uploaded to TWTY in the future.

The plan for the time being though is to complete the transcriptions of the Greek RC/NT Papyrus manuscripts that have yet to be done. Thankfully there’s only eleven of them left – they do however happen to be some of the largest ones (especially Papyrus 46, 66, 75), so they won’t be that quick in coming 🙂

Anyway – enjoy the new releases for the moment!

Dead Sea Scrolls – Parallel Manuscripts

Discuss with others in the TWTY forum!

Dead Sea Scrolls – Complete Collection

August 30th, 2014

Well, I said I’d have them done by the end of the year. 🙂

That’s it! The complete collection of Scriptural Dead Sea Scrolls transcribed and compared against the Masoretic text of the Tanakh.

Please check out the Downloads Page for links to the individual manuscripts to download, and see below for the new transcriptions now available.

Complete collection ZIP file is at the bottom 🙂

Psalms
1Q10 Psalmsa (1QPsalmsa) | 1Q11 Psalmsb (1QPsalmsb) | 1Q12 Psalmsc (1QPsalmsc) | 2Q14 Psalms (2QPsalms) | 3Q2 Psalms (3QPsalms) | 4Q83 Psalmsa (4QPsalmsa) | 4Q84 Psalmsb (4QPsalmsb) | 4Q85 Psalmsc (4QPsalmsc) | 4Q86 Psalmsd (4QPsalmsd) | 4Q87 Psalmse (4QPsalmse) | 4Q88 Psalmsf (4QPsalmsf) | 4Q89 Psalmsg (4QPsalmsg) | 4Q90 Psalmsh (4QPsalmsh) | 4Q91 Psalmsj (4QPsalmsj) | 4Q92 Psalmsk (4QPsalmsk) | 4Q93 Psalmsl (4QPsalmsl) | 4Q94 Psalmsm (4QPsalmsm) | 4Q95 Psalmsn (4QPsalmsn) | 4Q96 Psalmso (4QPsalmso) | 4Q97 Psalmsp (4QPsalmsp) | 4Q98 Psalmsq (4QPsalmsq) | 4Q98a Psalmsr (4QPsalmsr) | 4Q98b Psalmss (4QPsalmss) | 4Q98c Psalmst (4QPsalmst) | 4Q98d Psalmsu (4QPsalmsu) | 4Q98e Psalmsv (4QPsalmsv) | 4Q522 Psalms | 6Q5 Psalms (6QPsalms) | 11Q5 Psalmsa (11QPsalmsa) | 11Q6 Psalmsb (11QPsalmsb) | 11Q7 Psalmsc (11QPsalmsc) | 11Q8 Psalmsd (11QPsalmsd) | 11Q9 Psalmse (11QPsalmse) | 11Q11 Psalms (11QPsalms)/del> | Nahal Hever Psalms/del> | Masada Psalmsa (MasPsalmsa) | Masada Psalmsb (MasPsalmsb)

Other Books
Masada Genesis (MasGen) | 11Q1 paleoLeviticusa (11QpaleoLev) | 11Q2 Leviticusb (11QLevb) | Masada Leviticusa (MasLeva) | Masada Leviticusb (MasLevb) | 11Q12 Numbers (11QNum) | 4Q73 Ezekiela (4QEzeka) | 4Q74 Ezekielb (4QEzekb) | Masada Ezekiel (MasEzek)

Complete Collection
Dead Sea Scrolls – Complete Collection

Edit: For the above, please refer to the Downloads Page.

Dead Sea Scrolls – Mammoth Update

June 18th, 2014

Well, I’m sorry that it’s been a while since the last update (March), but I’ve been working hard to sorting out this following update 🙂

Below (as well as on the downloads page), you find links to 32 new Dead Sea Scrolls Manuscript transcriptions!

These 32 are the complete collection of Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts comprising the fifth book of the Torah/Moses/Pentateuch: Deuteronomy. This now means that all the manuscripts from the Dead Sea Scrolls that comprise the entirety of the Torah are now available on TWTY – and all for free!

There is therefore now only one last book (or collection) to do: the Psalms. I’ve done four of the Psalms at the moment (4Q98f Psalmsw, 4Q98g Psalmsx, 5Q5 Psalms, and 8Q2 Psalms), leaving 34 manuscripts left to do. I hope to have them up by the end of the year 🙂

Deuteronomy
1Q4 Deuteronomya (1QDeuta)
1Q5 Deuteronomyb (1QDeutb)
2Q10 Deuteronomya (2QDeuta)
2Q11 Deuteronomyb (2QDeutb)
2Q12 Deuteronomyc (2QDeutc)
4Q28 Deuteronomya (4QDeut)
4Q29 Deuteronomyb (4QDeut)
4Q30 Deuteronomyc (4QDeutc)
4Q31 Deuteronomyd (4QDeutd)
4Q32 Deuteronomye (4QDeute)
4Q33 Deuteronomyf (4QDeutf)
4Q34 Deuteronomyg (4QDeutg)
4Q35 Deuteronomyh (4QDeuth)
4Q36 Deuteronomyi (4QDeuti)
4Q37 Deuteronomyj (4QDeutj)
4Q38 Deuteronomyk1 (4QDeutk1)
4Q38a Deuteronomyk2 (4QDeutk2)
4Q38b Deuteronomyk3 (4QDeutk3)
4Q39 Deuteronomyl (4QDeutl)
4Q40 Deuteronomym (4QDeutm)
4Q41 Deuteronomyn (4QDeutn)
4Q42 Deuteronomyo (4QDeuto)
4Q43 Deuteronomyp (4QDeutp)
4Q44 Deuteronomyq (4QDeutq)
4Q45 plaeoDeuteronomyr (QpaleoDeutr)
4Q46 paleoDeuteronomys (4QpaleoDeuts)
4Q122 Septuagint Deuteronomy (4QLXXDeut)
5Q1 Deuteronomy (5QDeut)
6Q3 papDeuteronomy (6QpapDeut)
11Q3 Deuteronomy (11QDeut)
Masada Deuteronomy (MasDeut)
Nahal Hever Deuteronomy
Wadi Murabba’at Deuteronomy (MurDeut)

Edit: For the above, please refer to the Downloads Page

Dead Sea Scrolls – Exodus Complete

March 5th, 2014

Hello one and all!

Sorry it’s been a while since the last update. I do however have a huge update – 11 new Dead Sea Scrolls Manuscript transcriptions!

This therefore means that all the manuscripts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls regarding the Book of Exodus are now available for viewing 🙂

As usual, find them on the Downloads Page, or via the quick links below 🙂

Exodus
1Q2 Exodus (1QExod)
2Q2 Exodusa (2QExoda)
2Q3 Exodusb (2QExodb)
4Q1Genesis-Exodusa (4QGen-Exoda) – Exodus
4Q11 paleoGenesis-Exodusl (4QpaleoGen-Exodl)
4Q13 Exodusb (4QExodb)
4Q14 Exodusc (4QExodc)
4Q17 Exodus-Leviticusf (4QExodf)
4Q20 Exodusj (4QExodj)
4Q22 paleoExodusm (4QpaleoExodm)
Wadi Murabba’at Exodus (MurExod)

Exodus – Full Collection

Edit: For the above, please refer to the Downloads Page.

Dead Sea Scrolls – Leviticus Complete

November 17th, 2013

Yup, it’s Dead Sea Scrolls update time! Got another complete collection for everyone today – Leviticus.

This now just leaves two books of the Torah left to complete (Exodus and Deuteronomy), as well as the vast amount of Psalms (both ‘canonical’ and ‘non-canonical’) found at Qumran.

As usual, please find all Downloads available on TWTY on the Downloads Page, and the links to the Leviticus manuscripts are below 🙂

Hebrew
1Q3 PaleoLeviticus-Numbers (1QpaleoLev-Num) | 2Q5 paleoLeviticus (2QpaleoLev) | 4Q17 Exodus-Leviticusf (4QExod-Levf) | 4Q23 Leviticus-Numbersa (4QLev-Numa) | 4Q24 Leviticus b (4QLevb) | 4Q25 Leviticus c (4QLevc) | 4Q26 Leviticusd (4QLevd) | 4Q26a Leviticuse (4QLeve) | 4Q26b Leviticusg (4QLevg) | 6Q2 paleoLeviticus (6QpaleoLev)

Greek
4Q119 Septuagint Leviticusa (4QLXXLeva) | 4Q120 Septuagint Leviticusb (4QLXXLevb)

Full
Leviticus – Full Collection
Edit: For the above, please refer to the Downloads Page.

Dead Sea Scrolls – Numbers Complete

November 1st, 2013

Dead Sea Scrolls Transcription time again – this time it is the complete collection of DSS Numbers manuscripts, with the final two being online for download at TWTY Downloads page (bringing the total to 11), as we as some quick links below 🙂

This means that there are only four more books left to have their Dead Sea Scrolls transcriptions posted online – the rest of the manuscripts of Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, and the Psalms. I will be endeavouring to have these done within the next 6 months or so (hopefully sooner, time permitting!) 🙂

Quick Links
4Q23 Leviticus-Numbersa (4QLev-Numa) | 4Q27 Numbersb (4QNumb) | All Numbers DSS Manuscripts (ZIP File)

Main Downloads Page